"Who needs morals? I own both Mecca and Medina, therefore I get to decide what is moral for Islam or not, you undersized cockroach" - Mamluk Caliphate to Yemen, 1487
The Mamluk Caliphate is a nation in Brazilian Mapping 's Alternate History of Europe, and the unofficial antagonist of Season 1 (Varna).
The Caliphate is the successor of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, established after a rebellion in the 1250s from the Ayyubid Empire, which was reduced to a small piece of land around Hisn Kayfa. After expelling the Crusaders from mainland Asia and resisting the Mongol invasions, the Caliphate entered a period of relative peace during the next 200 years.
Al-Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Barsbay
Barsbay became sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1422, being a slave of the former sultan, but appointed his successor rather than any of his sons. He secured the Red Sea for the mamluks and brought Cyprus under the Mamluk wing. In 1430, a famine hit Egypt, so he spent the next few years recovering the nation and army. 15 years later, he campaigned against the declining Ottoman Empire and found an unlikely ally: the Karamanid bey Ibrahim II, son of the Karamanid bey Mehmet, a man he had been friends with and at odds with for many years. After the war ended, he added a port near Rhodes and eastern Anatolia to his empire. He then campaigned against Libya, but was killed during the Battle of Sirt. His armies, unaware of his death, finished the conquest in 1448.
Sayf ad-Din Inal
Barsbay was succeeded by Al-Mansur Fakhr-ad-Din Uthman, which was quickly and bloodlessy deposed due to his incompetence. Then rose to the throne Sayf ad-Din Inal, who immediately attacked and annexed Hisn Kayfa for the Ayyubid legacy in 1459. A few years after, in 1465, during the First Maghrebi War, he attacked the Sultanate of Tunis, which was weakened by the war against Tlemcen. Tunis was made a Mamluk vassal. However, due to unpopularity thanks to his wars, Sayf ad-Din Inal stepped down from power in 1469.
Sayf ad-Din Khushqadam
Sayf ad-Din Khushqadam was a Greek who was fed up by east Rome and converted to Islam. He succeeded ad-Din Inal, contented the people and warmed up relations with the Nerasids of Shiraz, which had recently unified Persia.
He then went to face his first true challenge: The Black Sheep Turkmens, based at Tabriz. The tribe was led by Jahan Shah, a ruler of unparalleled efficiency, which made the Mamluk conquest slow down radically. He was killed in Antioch, however, and is successor was unable to keep stability within the confederation, thus rebels started to rise up in the east. By 1473 Qara Qoyunlu had collapsed, and the Mamluks annexed Kurdistan and established puppets in Armenia and Baghdad. Khushqadam died soon after in 1474.
The new Sultan, having recieving news from the imminent collapse of the Golden Horde, decided that his empire was now the leader of Islam once more, and thus adopted the title "caliph", effectively forming the Mamluk Caliphate. It campaigned against the Upper Nile tribes and attempted an invasion on Cyprus, but this island was taken by Rûm, the Sultanate Ibrahim II had formed upon the Ottoman collapse and which had long steered away from the Mamluk friendzone, finding an unlikely ally in Byzantium instead. The Caliphate would also annex Yemen and solidify control over the Red Sea in 1487, banning Europe from the spice trade and allying with several other Islamic nations in the Maghrebi League. The Mamluk vassal of Armenia led a campaign to annex several Caucasian states and tribes in 1495-1496.
Qaitbay died in 1500 and was replaced by Sayf ad-Din Qaitbay II. Generally described as a very intelligent leader, he had a different approach to expansion from his predecessor: the Caliphate itself didn't expand in size, instead building two large armies (one stationed in Sirt and the other stationed in Cairo), as well as influencing neighbors, notably Morocco, which struggled with Iberian and Italian smuggling, and Tlemcen, helping them with supporting Tlemceni rebels in Sardinian lands in 1506. He also authorized a second Armenian expansion, which culminated in the annexation of the Circassian coast. The remainders of the Circassian state were annexed by the Great Horde.
Sometime during 1508, Qaitbay II and the Neapolitan king sign the Malta Agreement, guaranteeing that the Neapolitans would pull out of decisive battles and exchange military information.
Great Mediterranean War
During 1509, as the balance of power in Europe gradually shifted towards a great war, Qaitbay ordered the first army to move to Erzurum. Finally, in November 8th, 1509, he ordered an invasion of Morocco, beginning the Great Mediterranean War.
After Qaitbay started the Great Mediterranean War, he had some early successes, the most notable of which included capturing Constantinople and conquering Anatolia. In 1512, the League of Cairo was formed. However, the Caliph's failure to capture the cities of Venice and Krakow turned the tables, and the League of Cairo suffered many major defeats, culminating in Qaitbay II himself losing a duel with the Neapolitan/Italic king, dying in the process. With that, the Mamluk Caliphate ended.
The Mamluk Caliphate has been described by Brazilian as "extremely arrogant and sarcastic at times", once telling Yemen that "he didn't need morals, as he owned Mecca and Medina", the two holy cities of Islam.
The Caliphate, notably under Qaitbay I and II, has appeared to be very good at the art of diplomacy, forming the Maghrebi League, having a stable network of vassals and having cooperated with both the Great Horde and the Nerasid Dynasty of Persia.